Reproductive endocrinology


Infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year for most people and six months in certain cases. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner, or a combination of factors may be operating to prevent pregnancy. The reasons for infertility can involve one or both partners.

Causes of male infertility

  • Abnormalities in sperm production and ejaculation---- undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems including diabetes, prior infections such as mumps, trauma or prior surgeries on the testicles or inguinal region. Enlarged veins in the testes can increase blood flow and heat, affecting the number and shape of sperm. Certain functional abnormalities also cause male infertility such as premature ejaculation, semen entering the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm (retrograde ejaculation), certain genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, structural problems, such as blockage of the part of the testicle that contains sperm (epididymis), or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
  • Certain chemicals and toxins, such as pesticides, radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, addictives [drugs], and steroids. In addition, frequent exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs, can elevate the testicular temperature, impairing sperm production.
  • Damage related to cancer and its treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy.

Causes of female infertility

  • Ovulation disorders----hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, a condition that might relate to your ovaries producing too much of the male hormone testosterone, and hyperprolactinemia [high levels of prolactin hormones in blood].
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities------abnormalities in the shape or cavity of the uterus, uterine fibroids. Fibroids may distort the uterine cavity interfering with implantation of the fertilized egg.
  • Endometriosis, which occurs when endometrial tissue implants and grows outside of the uterus — often affecting the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
  • Thyroid problems. Disorders of the thyroid gland, either too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism), can interrupt the menstrual cycle or cause infertility.
  • Fallopian tube damage or blockage
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency, also called early menopause, when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40. Although the cause is often unknown, certain conditions are associated with early menopause, including immune system diseases, radiation or chemotherapy treatment, and smoking.
  • Certain medications

Homeopathic management:

Homeopathic treatment is not indicated for structural abnormalities of male or female generative organs. It is indicated for ovulation disorders, thyroid disorders causing infertility, unknown causes of infertility etc.homeopathic medicines are chiefly prescribed for hormonal disturbances causing infertility, certain constitutional factors, immunological problems, bad effects of drugs and smoking habits, over medication etc. A few homeopathic drugs used for treating infertility are mentioned here-medorrhinum, lycopodium, pulsatilla, ustilago, asoka.thyroidinum.

Prevention of infertility

  • Avoid drug and tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Avoid high temperatures
  • Avoid exposure to industrial or environmental toxins
  • Avoid or reduce medicines which can affect your fertility.
  • Exercise regularly, have a balanced diet, Limit caffeine.
  • In women being overweight or underweight can affect hormone production and cause infertility